Ienachita (1740-99), after traveling and studying in St. Petersburg and Vienna, wrote poems inspired by Russian folk songs. He wrote the first Romanian grammar book (Gramatica româneasca, 1787). His chief poems, Amarîta turturea ("Sad Turtledove") and Testamentul, reveal a high artistic level and a mastery of a rich Romanian language. Ienachita's sons, Alecu (1765-99) and Nicolae (1784-1825), also wrote poems inspired by folk songs and modern Greek anacreontics. They composed love poems and satires.
Iancu (1792-1863), son of Alecu, was the most important writer of the Vacarescu family. A poet several times exiled for his anti-Russian activity, he was the first Romanian playwright and also an able translator into Romanian of plays by Jean Racine, Molière, and August von Kotzebue. His Colectii de poezii ("Collected Poems") appeared in 1848.
Elena (also spelled Hélène; 1866-1947), a niece of Iancu, was a poet and novelist who wrote in French. A maid of honour of Queen Elizabeth of Romania, she had a love affair with the Crown Prince (afterward King) Ferdinand; the marriage was opposed by King Carol I, and Elena was exiled to Paris, where she spent the rest of her life. She published many volumes of lyrical verse: Chants d'aurore (1886: "Dawn Songs"), for which she was awarded the prize of the French Academy; L'Âme sereine (1896; "The Serene Soul"); Lueurs et flammes (1903; "Gleams and Flames"); and Dans l'or du soir (1928; "In the Gold of the Evening"). She also wrote a few novels. In 1925 she was elected an honorary member of the Romanian Academy.
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