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Nations of the World: Statistics

Romania

Official name: România (Romania).

Form of government: unitary republic with two legislative houses (Senate [143]; Assembly of Deputies [341{1}]).

Chief of state: President.

Head of government: Prime Minister.

Capital: Bucharest.

Official language: Romanian.

Official religion: none.

Monetary unit: 1 Romanian leu (plural lei)=100 bani; valuation (Oct. 11, 1996) 1 U.S.$=3,285 lei; 1 £ =5,175 lei.

Demography

Population (1996): 22,670,000.

Density (1996): persons per sq mi 247.2, persons per sq km 95.4.

Urban-rural (1995): urban 55.4%; rural 44.6%.

Sex distribution (1995): male 49.27%; female 50.73%.

Age breakdown (1995): under 15, 20.4%; 15-29, 25.0%; 30-44, 20.5%; 45-59, 16.9%; 60-74, 13.6%; 75 and over, 3.6%.

Population projection: (2000) 22,615,000; (2010) 22,481,000.

Ethnic composition (1992): Romanian 89.4%; Hungarian 7.1%; Gypsy (Tigani) 1.8%; German 0.5%; Ukrainian 0.3%; other 0.9%.

Religious affiliation (1992): Romanian Orthodox 86.8%; Roman Catholic 5.0%; Greek Orthodox 3.5%; Pentecostal 1.0%; Muslim 0.2%; other 3.5%.

Major cities (1994): Bucharest 2,080,363; Constanta 348,575; Iasi 339,889; Timisoara 327,830; Galati 326,728; Cluj-Napoca 326,017; Brasov 324,210.

Vital statistics

Birth rate per 1,000 population (1995): 10.4 (world avg. 25.0).

Death rate per 1,000 population (1995): 12.0 (world avg. 9.3).

Natural increase rate per 1,000 population (1995): -1.6 (world avg. 15.7).

Total fertility rate (avg. births per childbearing woman; 1993): 1.5.

Marriage rate per 1,000 population (1994): 6.8.

Divorce rate per 1,000 population (1990): 1.4.

Life expectancy at birth (1995): male 69.3 years; female 75.4 years.

Major causes of death per 100,000 population (1992): circulatory disease 707.7; cancers 163.4; respiratory disease 94.0; diseases of the digestive system 57.9.

National economy

Budget (1994). Revenue: 8,318,838,000,000 lei (value-added tax 27.3%, corporate tax 22.9%, personal income tax 21.1%, customs 6.8%). Expenditures: 10,930,320,000,000 lei (culture 15.0%, defense 10.8%, health 9.1%, interest 5.8%).

Tourism (1994): receipts U.S.$414,000,000; expenditures U.S.$449,000,000.

Production (metric tons). Agriculture (1996): corn (maize) 10,000,000, potatoes 3,200,000, wheat 3,168,000, sugar beets 2,774,000, grapes 1,314,000, sunflower seeds 1,300,000, barley 1,140,000, cabbages 824,000, tomatoes 731,000; livestock (number of live animals) 10,381,000 sheep, 7,960,000 pigs, 3,496,000 cattle; roundwood (1994) 11,925,000 cu m; fish catch (1993) 34,919. Mining (1995): iron 180,000; bauxite 174,000; zinc 34,680; copper 24,000. Manufacturing (1994): cement 5,998,000; steel 5,800,000; pig iron 3,496,000; fertilizer 1,562,000; aluminum 122,000; beer 9,046,000 hectolitres; wine 8,425,000 hectolitres. Construction (1995): 9,300 dwelling units. Energy production (consumption): electricity (kW-hr; 1994) 55,136,000,000 (55,861,000,000); coal (metric tons; 1994) 40,547,000 (44,893,000); crude petroleum (barrels; 1994) 50,568,000 (109,995,000); petroleum products (metric tons; 1994) 13,066,000 (10,291,000); natural gas (cu m; 1994) 15,868,000,000 (20,214,000,000).

Public debt (external, outstanding; 1994): U.S.$2,942,000,000.

Gross national product (1994): U.S.$27,921,000,000 (U.S.$2,650 per capita).

Population economically active (1994): total 11,237,400; activity rate 49.4% (participation rates: ages 15-64, 67.2% {2}; female 44.2%{2}; unemployed 11.0%).

Household income and expenditure. Average household size (1992) 3.1; income per household (1989) 73,500 lei (U.S.$4,940); sources of income (1982): wages 62.6%; expenditure (1989): food 51.1%, housing 16.4%, clothing 15.7%.

Land use (1994): forest 29.0%; pasture 21.2%; agricultural 43.1%; other 6.7%.

Foreign trade

Imports (1994): 11,919,074,000,000 lei (machinery and transport equipment 47.2%, mineral fuels 23.7%, textiles 11.4%, chemicals 7.9%). Major import sources: Germany 18.0%; Russia 13.8%; Italy 11.8%; U.S. 6.5%; Iran 6.2%; France 5.1%.

Exports (1994): 10,272,827,000,000 lei (machinery 29.4%, textiles 18.8%, iron and steel 11.6%, mineral fuels 9.9%, chemicals 8.0%). Major export destinations: Germany 16.1%; Italy 12.9%; France 5.1%; China 4.5%; Turkey 4.1%.

Transport and communications

Transport. Railroads (1995): length 7,062 mi{3}, 11,365 km{3}; passenger-km 18,880,000,000; metric ton-km cargo 27,180,000,000. Roads (1992): length 95,099 mi, 153,014 km (paved 51%). Vehicles (1994): cars 2,020,017; trucks and buses 370,239. Merchant marine (1992): vessels (100 gross tons and over) 439; total deadweight tonnage 4,845,539. Air transport (1994): passenger-km 2,580,000,000; metric ton-km cargo 19,404,000; airports (1996) 12.

Communications. Daily newspapers (1992): total number 76; total circulation 7,500,000; circulation per 1,000 population 324. Radios (1993): 4,640,000 (1 per 4.9 persons). Televisions (1993): 4,580,000 (1 per 5.0 persons). Telephones (main lines; 1993): 2,623,700 subscribers (1 per 8.7 persons).

Education and health

Educational attainment (1992). Percentage of population age 25 and over having: no schooling 5.4%; some primary education 24.4%; some secondary 63.2%; postsecondary 6.9%. Literacy (1992): total population age 15 and over literate 16,920,000 (96.7%); males literate 8,280,000 (98.5%); females literate 8,640,000 (95.0%).

Health: physicians (1993) 40,265 (1 per 565 persons); hospital beds (1992) 215,629 (1 per 105 persons); infant mortality rate (1995) 21.2.

Food (1994): daily per capita caloric intake 2,953 (vegetable products 76%{2}, animal products 24%{2}); 111% of FAO recommended minimum requirement.

Military

Total active duty personnel (1996): 228,400 (army 56.8%, navy 8.1%, air force 20.8%, other 14.3%). Military expenditure as percentage of GNP (1994): 2.6% (world 3.0%); per capita expenditure U.S.$75.

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notes:

{1}Includes 13 nonelective seats. 

{2}1992.

{3}1994. 


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