(Greek: Friendly Brotherhood), Greek revolutionary secret society founded by merchants in Odessa in 1814 to overthrow Ottoman rule in southeastern Europe and to establish an independent Greek state. The society's claim of Russian support and the romance of its commitment (each member swore "irreconcilable hatred against the tyrants of my country") brought thousands into its ranks. Though some recruits believed that the society was secretly directed by the Russian emperor's foreign secretary--the Greek Ioánnis, Count Kapodístrias--it was Alexander Ypsilantis, an officer in the Russian Army, who accepted the leadership in 1820. Having planned uprisings in the Danubian principalities as well as in the Peloponnese and the Greek islands, Ypsilantis launched the revolt in the spring of 1821. The Romanian peasants did not join his forces, however; the Russian emperor Alexander I repudiated him, and the Turks quickly defeated him. The venture resulted primarily in bringing an end to the rule of the Greek Phanariotes in Moldavia and Walachia.
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