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A republic on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe, Romania has a coastline on the Black Sea. Area: 237,500 sq km (91,699 sq mi). Pop. (1996 est.): 22,670,000. Cap.: Bucharest. Monetary unit: leu, with (Oct. 11, 1996) a free rate of 3,285 lei to U.S. $1 (5,175 lei = £1 sterling). Presidents in 1996, Ion Iliescu and, from November 29, Emil Constantinescu; prime ministers, Nicolae Vacaroiu and, from December 12, Victor Ciorbea.

For Romania 1996 was a year of sweeping political changes that culminated in the victory of the democratic opposition in the November presidential and parliamentary elections. Those changes had been heralded by the continuing disintegration of the ruling coalition, dominated by the left-wing Party of Social Democracy in Romania (PDSR). The alliance originally included the ultranationalist Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR) and Greater Romania Party (PRM), as well as the neo-communist Socialist Labour Party (PSM). The PDSR parted with the PRM and PSM in October 1995 and March 1996, respectively. In early September, after months of increasing friction, it broke with its last ally, the PUNR. Consequently, the PDSR, which did not have a parliamentary majority, found itself increasingly isolated politically. That the PDSR government, headed by Nicolae Vacaroiu, was able to survive for several more months was primarily due to its being tacitly tolerated by the democratic opposition.

The PDSR's efforts to rid itself of its former nationalist and far-left allies were clearly designed to improve the party's image both at home and abroad by stressing its commitment to balanced, centrist policies. Against the background of a protracted economic and social malaise, however, the party's popularity among Romanians continued to decline. The erosion was aggravated by massive price hikes for staples, energy, and fuel in June and July. The PDSR received an early warning signal in the June local elections, in which it lost in most big towns, including Bucharest. The Democratic Convention of Romania (CDR) won more county councillor posts than the PDSR, and almost as many mayoral offices. The CDR was an umbrella organization consisting of parties and associations of diverse political orientations.

PDSR leaders tried to explain the party's poor showing in the local elections as evidence of widespread frustration over the ongoing reforms. The opposition, in turn, spoke of the ruling party's innate inability to implement any serious reforms. It also accused the PDSR of condoning rampant corruption. In the parliamentary elections the CDR ranked first with 30% of the votes, followed by the PDSR (22%), the Social Democratic Union (USD, 13%), the Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania (UDMR, nearly 7%), and the PRM and PUNR, with more than 4% each. In the presidential election Ion Iliescu, Romania's acting president since May 1990, won the first round with over 32% but lost to his CDR rival, Emil Constantinescu, in a runoff on November 17. Thus, the CDR emerged victorious on all fronts. Its political offer in the form of a U.S.-style "contract with Romania" ultimately proved more attractive than that of the PDSR.

On September 16 Romania and Hungary signed a treaty that demarcated their common border and guaranteed the rights of ethnic minorities--a requirement for membership in the European Union and NATO.

Constantinescu was sworn in as Romania's president on November 29. He appointed Victor Ciorbea, the CDR mayor of Bucharest, prime minister and asked him to form a Cabinet based on a coalition consisting of the CDR, the USD, and the UDMR.

Romania was the last former communist country in Eastern Europe (with the exception of Yugoslavia) in which democrats could eventually replace a regime that had strong links with the communists. The changeover, which was met with sympathy in the West, boosted Romania's chances to join the Euro-Atlantic structures, including NATO. (DAN IONESCU)

This article updates BALKAN STATES: Romania.

Events of 1995

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Events of 1993

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